All definitions belong to Wikipedia except when mentioned otherwise.

Acrylamide  was accidentally discovered in foods in April 2002 by scientists in Sweden when they found large amounts of the chemical in starchy foods, such as crisps, chips, and bread.

Allergenicity is the capacity to cause an allergic reaction.

Carcinogenicity is the capacity of causing or tending to cause cancer.

Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. It was the first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale. Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms; it is still very widely used in low income countries because it is exceedingly cheap, but has fallen out of favour in the West due to a very rare but very serious side effect: aplastic anemia. In the West, the main use of chloramphenicol is in eye drops or ointment for bacterial conjunctivitis.

Commingling literally means "mixing together".

Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease affecting the intestines of mammals. It is caused by Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite in the phylum Apicomplexa. The disease spreads through the faecal-oral route; the main symptom is self-limiting diarrhoea in people with intact immune systems. In immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients, infection can cause permanent and life-threatening diarrhoea. Despite not being identified until 1976 it is one of the most common waterborne diseases and is found worldwide.

Dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy which is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure. It is a life support treatment and does not treat any kidney diseases. Dialysis may be used for very sick patients who have suddenly lost their kidney function (acute renal failure).

Endogenous in general means anything developing or growing from within. (Hyperdictionary)

Excyst (verb: excystation) means to escape from a cyst or envelope, as in that stage in the life cycle of parasites occurring after the cystic form has been swallowed by the host. (

General Food Law : In all Member States and many third countries, the overarching principles concerning food safety and consumer protection are established in national legislation. However, at EU level, food legislation has evolved without some of these basic principles having been established in an overarching legal instrument. On the 28th of January 2002 the European Parliament and the Council adopted Regulation (EC)178/2002 laying down the General Principles and Requirements of Food Law. The aim of the General Food Law Regulation is to provide a framework to ensure a coherent approach in the development of food legislation. At the same time, it provides the general framework for those areas not covered by specific harmonised rules but where the functioning of the Internal Market is ensured by mutual recognition. It lays down definitions, principles and obligations covering all stages of food/feed production and distribution. (

Genotype is a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution. (Hyperdictionary)

Hallucinogen is a compound that can cause subjective changes in perception, thought, emotion and consciousness.

Horizontal gene transfer is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. By contrast, vertical transfer occurs when an organism receives genetic material from its ancestor, e.g. its parent or a species from which it evolved.

Inoculum is the microorganism used in an “inoculation”, a term referring to the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce. It is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance into the body of a person or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease. Furthermore, it can also be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism, to implant microorganisms or infectious material into a culture medium such as a brewers vat or a petri dish.

Kaolinite is used in ceramics, medicines, coated paper, as a food additive, in toothpaste, as a light diffusing material in white incandescent light bulbs, and in cosmetics. This type of clay was used in a potato processing plant in the Netherlands to separate high quality potatoes from lower quality ones. In 2004, the kaolinite clay bath was found to be contaminated by dioxins and appears to have in turn contaminated the potato peels, used for animal feeding.

Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on the kidney.

Neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons –.

Nitrofurans are a class of drugs, derived from furan, used to inhibit bacterial growth. They are toxic and carcinogenic.

Oocyst is the spore phase of certain organisms, such as Cryptosporidium andToxoplasma. This state can survive for lengthy periods outside a host and is very resistant.

Parkinson’s disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills and speech.

Prebiotics are a category of functional food, defined as: non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health. Most potential prebiotics are carbohydrates (such as oligosaccharides), but the definition does not exclude the use of non-carbohydrates as prebiotics.

Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the most common microbes used. Probiotic bacterial cultures are intended to assist the body's naturally occurring gut flora to reestablish themselves.

Prophylaxis is any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent rather than treat or cure disease.

Silage is plants and leaves harvested while green and kept juicy by partial fermentation in a silo (Hyperdictionary)

Taxa (singular taxon) is a animal or plant group having natural relations. (Hyperdictionary)

Teratogenicity is the capability to cause malformations or defects to an embryo or foetus.

Tillage is the cultivation of arable land by plowing, sowing and raising crops.

Toxigenic are organisms that produce toxins.(

White paper is an authoritative report; a government report outlining policy; or a document for the purpose of educating industry customers or collecting leads for a company. White papers are used to help people make decisions.